3 Different types of Motherboard, Uses Parts and their functions

In this article, we will know what is computer motherboard and 3 different types of motherboard & functions of motherboard. The motherboard is an important hardware device of the computer.

There are many wires in it which are not visible to the naked eye. All these wires communicate with all the external and internal devices installed in the computer. That’s why a motherboard is also called a printed circuit board.

The motherboard is designed in such a way that it supplies power and communicates data to other electronic equipment installed in the computer. It is used to operate all electronic devices But the size of the motherboard is different for every computer.

As new technology is being introduced, new technology is also being used in motherboards. Due to this, the performance of the motherboard is increasing. let’s start without delay.

What is Motherboard?

A computer is made up of many components. Among those components, the motherboard is an important complete part. It is also called a large Printed Circuit Board. It consists of many chips, connectors, and various electronic components. This is a type of medium in a computer that connects all the necessary equipment of the computer to each other.

In the motherboard, instead of different types, other devices are installed, that place is called a port or slot. The part of the motherboard in which the RAM, network card, graphics card, etc are installed, called slots. And where external devices like keyboard, mouse, printer cable, VGA cable, etc. are installed, they are called ports.

The motherboard gets power from SMPS (Simple Mode Power Supply). It supplies power to different components as it needs and operates the computer by balancing all the components.

3 Different types of motherboard

Earlier, when the motherboard was used in the computer, then its size was big. But as the technology progressed, the chipset in the board got smaller and started giving better performance than before. Because of this, the size of the motherboard also started getting smaller.

As the performance of motherboards increased, so did the new generation of computers. Today we use fifth-generation computers. There are many types of motherboards available in the market today. So let’s know how many different types of motherboard are there and know about them in detail.

AT Motherboard

This AT motherboard was designed by IBM in the year 1980. It was used a lot in those days. It was also known as “Full AT”. The size of the motherboard was 351 x 305 mm, so it could not fit into a “mini desktop” frame. “AT” used to be called Advance Technology.

This types of motherboard used 2 connectors of 6 pins each for the power supply. That connector was very carefully inserted into the slot of the motherboard. If that connector was not placed in the correct position then the entire board would be damaged. The diagram below shows the pins and signals of the power connector.

AT Power Connector

ATX Motherboard

The full form of ATX is advanced technology extended. It was developed by Intel in 1990. Its performance was much better than older motherboards like AT motherboards. ATX size was 305 x 244 mm.

In this types of motherboard, all the connectors were improved as compared to the earlier motherboards. In this, an additional port was given at the back to use the input-output device. The BIOS programmer is used to manage all the power supplies in the motherboard.

Mini ITX Motherboard

Mini ITX motherboards were designed in the 2000s. It is very small compared to all other motherboards. Its size is 17 x 17 mm. The speciality of this motherboard is that it works on low power consumption and fast cooling capacity. The ports and PCI slots have been reduced to make the motherboard smaller and faster.

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Parts and functions of motherboard

There are many different parts in the motherboard of a computer. Because of this, a user can easily know by operating the computer. So let’s know which parts are there in the motherboard and what work they do.

CPU Socket

The CPU is kept in this socket, which we also call the processor. These are small pin-shaped sockets. Processing of all the work of the computer is done by installing a processor in it.

RAM Slot

The name of the RAM slot itself suggests that the RAM is installed in that slot. This fulfills the storage required in the processing time of the processor.

PCI Slot

The full form of the PCI slot is called Peripheral Component Interconnect. Various types of PCI devices are installed in this slot to upgrade the computer such as network cards, sound cards, graphics cards, etc.

Power Socket

In this power socket, a 24-pin power connector coming from the SMPS (Simple Mode Power Supply) has been installed. It converts AC power to DC and supplies 12V to the motherboard.

North Bridge Chipset

It used to be near the North Bridge processor. Its main job is to control RAM and create graphics. Because of this North Bridge, you can see all the pictures in the graphic on all the monitors. From this point, the North Bridge is also called GMCH (Graphic & Memory Controller Hub). Apart from this, it also supports VGA ports and HDMI ports in the motherboard.

SouthBridge Chipset

Basically, the South Bridge is used to control all USB ports, PCI slots, I/O controller ICs, Sound, Ethernet, Hard Disks, CD Drives, CMOS Memory, etc.


The full form of PCH is Platform Controller Hub. It was developed by Intel in 2009. This chipset was made to advance the motherboard. This PCH chipset is combining of North and South Bridge. it performs all the tasks of northbridge and southbridge.

IDE/SATA Connector

The full form of IDE Connector is Integrated Drive Electronics. It is used to connect all the external memory to the motherboard, such as hard disk, CD/DVD drive, floppy drive, etc. This connector used to come with older motherboards but now it’s changed and it is called SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) connector.

Similarly, this cable is used to connect a hard disk or DVD/DVD drive to the motherboard, which has an IDE connector on the motherboard. that cable is called ribbon cable. But since the SATA connector is used in the motherboard, the SATA cable is used instead of Ribbon cable.

CMOS Battery

The full form of CMOS is Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor. This battery helps in keeping the data and time of the computer right. In addition to, it stores and updates the settings of all the hardware in the computer in its memory.

Heat Sink

A heat sink is an aluminum metal that absorbs heat and keeps the appliance cool. It sits above the processor and the northbridge and absorbs its heat. Also used above is the PCH chipset. Similarly, a paste is applied between this heatsink and processor, we call it heat sink paste.

Cooling Fan

In addition, a cooling fan is mounted above the heat sink and Its function is to cool the heat sink.

Ports and Interfaces

All the work done by the computer is done with the help of input and output devices that are connected to the motherboard. So let’s know how many types of ports are there in the motherboard.

USB Port: These ports are used to connect the keyboard, mouse, external camera, printer, scanner, and USB-compatible devices with the computer.

RJ45 Port: This port is used to provide an Ethernet connection to the computer.

VGA Port: This port is used to provide output to the display devices. The full form of VGA is Video Graphics Array. Due to this port, the user gets the output of the computer in the form of a display.

Audio Port: The audio port has 2 plugs. One is a sound port that gives output in the form of sound from the computer. The second is the mic port, which captures the user’s voice as input and sends it to the computer.

PS2 Port: This port used to come in the earlier motherboard. in which the keyboard and mouse were connected.

HDMI Port: This port also provides the output of the computer in the form of a display. It works like a VGA port. This port provides a clearer display than the VGA port.

Characteristics of Motherboard

A Motherboard is considered to be the hub of the computer. So all the devices connected to the computer communicate with each other through the motherboard itself. It transmits data as well as power to all connected devices. After that, each device can do its job properly.

Top Motherboard Manufacturers List

  • Intel
  • ASRock.
  • Asus.
  • Gigabyte.
  • EVGA Corporation.
  • MSI (Micro-Star International)
  • Biostar.
  • AMD
  • Acer


A motherboard works properly by controlling the entire computer, laptop, or all other electronic devices. So the motherboard is the main part. In conclusion, I have given you detailed information about in this article, What is motherboard and all its functions. I hope you understand what a motherboard is and its functions. If you do not understand something, then improve this article, then tell your problem in the comment box below. Thank you for reading this article.

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