Do you know the importance of the Operating system, the functions of operating system & features of OS? If you do not know then this article is for you. So, let’s start.
When you buy a computer or laptop, the first thing you need to do is to install the operating system on it. What is happening now is that when you are buying a laptop online or offline, the OS is already installed in it.
An operating system is commonly called system software. It helps to start the computer. Also it takes care that the user can properly use the application software like Photoshop, Microsoft Office, Media Player, etc. installed on the computer.
Importance of Operating System?
An operating system is called a resource manager. Because it works to manage all hardware devices such as CPU, RAM, hard drive, etc, and also many types of application software and device driver. So it is called system software.
All of you must be using a mobile, laptop, or computer. All the software used to operate all these devices are different types of operating systems. These operating systems create a connection between the user and the hardware of the device.
Operating System is considered an essential component of the computer system. It usually acts as an interface between hardware and software. Some of the main reasons that highlight the importance of operating systems.
- The operating system manages all hardware components of the computer, including the CPU, storage devices, input/output devices, and network connections.
- The operating system allocates all the resources on the computer to the various running processes and applications. This maximizes the performance of the computer system.
- The operating system provides a user-friendly interface that allows the user to interact with the computer in a proper way.
- The OS manages the data or files in all the storage devices used in the computer and stores them in a sequential manner. So that the user can easily find his important files.
- Operating systems include device drivers that enable communication and interaction between hardware devices and software applications.
- Operating system plays a vital role in maintaining system security and protecting against unauthorized access, malware and other threats, access control, encryption, firewall configuration and antivirus integration to keep systems and data safe from potential risks.
History of Operating System
From (1940-1950) When the first computer was released, it did all the work of a calculator. No operating system was used in it. For programming, it was operated in machine language only. To operate the basic functions of the computer, a plugboard was used in it.
The first operating system was developed in 1956 by the General Motors Research Division. Basically, it was built to operate the IBM 704. At that time each customer or vendor produced one or more operating systems for their computers.
An operating system called Unix was developed at the AT&T Lab in the late 1960s. It was designed by Ken Thompson. The best thing about this operating system was that it was multitasking and multi-user. Therefore, Unix was widely used in various computing systems at that time.
After that, the first operating system was developed by Microsoft in 1981. It was named MS-DOS. Microsoft created its own OS after looking at the specification of IBM’s computer.
When Graphical User Interface was introduced in 1985 and it was merged with MS-DOS. Then it was named Window. Today there are many operating systems available Like Microsoft, Linux, Mac OS, etc.
Example of Operating System
There are many operating systems available in the market.
- Mac OS
- Chrome OS
Purpose of Operating System
The operating system is designed to create an interface between the computer hardware and the user. Due to which, the user can easily use the computer.
We all know that a computer is a machine and that machine does not understand human language. The computer usually understands only machine language. Therefore, the operating system is used to convert human language into machine language and machine language into human understandable language.
Any type of operating system is installed in every type of electronic device like a laptop, computer, smartphone, smart TV, tablet, new car etc. Which helps that device to run and interact with the user.
Functions of Operating System
Many important functions of operating system have been mentioned below.
The process of starting the computer is called booting. This is an important function of the operating system. It scans and checks whether all internal and external parts of the computer are running properly at the time of booting.
Older operating systems took time to boot up. But as time passed, the hardware and software of the computer started getting upgraded. So in today’s time, it does not take time for the computer to boot up.
There are 2 types of memory in a computer. The first is Primary memory and the other one is Secondary memory. RAM and ROM are considered the primary memory. Secondary memory consists of a hard drive, CD / DVD, floppy drive, SSD, etc.
All this memory works according to the instructions of the operating system. It also keeps track of the whole thing, which program the computer is processing and where will that data be stored after the program is executed. If there was no operating system then it would not be easy to manage all these memories.
Processing and Executing Programs
Normally, the only way to load a program is to start the computer. Because there are many default programs in the operating system. All those programs start working as soon as the operating system starts.
It easily loads and processes the programs stored in the memory. It then extracts the result from the program and executes it. These processing and executing functions of operating system help the processor work easily.
Giving security to the data is a big part of the operating system. Password is required only when you turn on the computer. which protects the computer from unauthorized access.
The operating system uses a firewall to protect the data stored in the computer. However, the firewall is a security system that monitors the activity happening on the computer. If there is some danger in the computer, it blocks that thing.
There are many device drivers used in computers. All the drivers are used for input and output devices. For example, Graphics Driver, USB Driver, Bluetooth Driver, Sound Driver, etc. The program by which these drivers are controlled is called the IO controller.
If the print command is given from the computer, then this IO controller finds whether the printer device is installed on the computer or not, after that if it is installed then it prints it. After printing it deallocate that command. In this process, OS manages the devices that connect with the computer.
The operating system also manages disk space. It places folders and data sequentially on the disk. So that it can be easy for the user to find that data or folder while running the computer.
It keeps an image of the deleted files from the disk inside itself so that the file can be recovered whenever it is needed.
The processor that comes today is capable of multitasking. It executes by processing many tasks simultaneously. Overall the operating system arranges the same task properly and gives it to the processor to process it. In this, It acts as a traffic controller.
Another key point is system performance. The operating system keeps checking the performance of the system every time and tries to improve its performance. It refers to the speed of the processor in processing and executing a task. Also, check whether all drivers are working properly or not.
The OS helps the user to operate the computer. Its main purpose is that a user can use the computer easily. Earlier operating systems came with a command-line interface. In which any task had to be done, then the command had to be written. Different commands had to be written for all the different tasks.
But it has become very easy to use the current operating system. Because it comes with a graphical user interface. Here menus, icons, and buttons are all used. In this mouse is used instead of a command. Clicking on the key makes the command process easier. The graphical user interface makes the computer user-friendly hence it is better.
Features of OS
- The current operating system should be built in such a way that the user can use it easily. This is called Graphical User Interface.
- It controls all the input/output devices and internal devices installed in the computer. Which the user can easily use all devices.
- It manages all the memory like primary and secondary memory and stores data in a sequence manner.
- The operating system monitors all the devices installed in the computer and especially monitors the work of the CPU. It tries to improve the CPU’s processing time.
- OS creates communication between computer hardware and software and operates the computer through different software.
- It detects the problem occurring in the system with the help of a firewall. The firewall tries to solve that problem first, if it is not able to, then blocks that problem.
Top 5 Popular Operating System
There are many operating systems in today’s generation. Out of this, only a few became popular and could provide excellent service to the user. Let’s talk about those operating systems.
This is the most popular and most used OS in the world. Many versions of it have been lunch. Examples: Windows NT, Windows 98, Window 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, and Windows 11, etc.
Out of this, Windows 11 is the latest version. The window OS was also launched on the mobile phone but it could not be user-friendly properly. That’s why it was closed.
macOS is used on Apple’s computers and laptops. This is the second most used OS after Windows. It was developed in 1984.
Linux is a free OS. It is mostly used to make the server so that the server can be used easily. It is a virus-free operating system. The virus is not supported in this. The top popular Linux OS are MX Linux, Manjaro, Linux Mint, Ubuntu, Debian, Elementary OS, Solus, Fedora, etc.
Nowadays this Android is mostly used on mobile phones. Android is very popular and the most used among all the operating systems of mobile phones. it is a mobile OS designed by Linux kernel and other open-source software.
Android is made for touchscreen mobiles. It is commercially sponsored by Google. Because of this, all Google products are inbuilt into the Android operating system.
Symbian is a mobile OS. It was the world’s number 1 mobile operating system. But since the use of Android started increasing, its craze started decreasing. Symbian was discontinued in 2014. It was mostly used in Nokia mobiles.
An operating system is a very important software that gives a platform to all other application software. So all the other software gets installed on the computer or mobile and can do its work. For this OS is called system software.
I hope in this article, you should be known about the Importance of operating system, functions of operating system and Features of OS. In this, everything about the operating system has been explained in detail.
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