5 important functions of a router

Do you know what is router? important functions of a router and Advantages and Disadvantages of router. If you do not know, then I have told this thing in detail in this article. Which you will get all the information related to the router

You can consider a router as a small device that is used in the computer network. It connects several computer networks together through a wired or wireless connection. Also, a Router connects a network to a different network or connects a network to the internet.

The router is basically a networking device which is used in the physical layer, data link layer, and network layer of the OSI model. It receives the incoming data from the sender, analysis it, and then sends it to the destination. So let’s know what is the router in networking.

What is the router in networking?

A router is a networking device that allows one network to transmit data to another network. It mainly transmits data packets from source to destination through an IP address. When the router receives the data from the source node, then it analyzing the data, and after that finds the shortest path and sends it to the destination.

Routers are used in 3 layers of the OSI model. So, it can check both MAC address and IP address. MAC address is used in a single network which is a local area network. But the IP address is there in the wide-area network. Like you search Google.com, Facebook.com, Instagram, Twitter, etc. They all have an IP address and you can access them through the router.

When communication is to be made with different networks, then a router is needed. An important thing about a router is that when it sends data, it finds the shortest route in every situation.

A router is programmed to examine the data packet, find its exact destination and find the shortest path. That programming is called routing table.

Routing table in computer networks

After receiving the data packet every time, the router first stores it in memory. After that, it checks the data and forwards the data packet to the optimum route. All this is known with the help of routing tables. There are 2 types of routing tables.

  • Static Routing Table
  • Dynamic Routing Table

Static Routing Table

The work of receiving, forwarding, and checking the data in the static routing table and sending it to the right destination has to be done manually. This is possible only in small networks. In this, the user has to manually input the data.

Dynamic Routing Table

The data is automatically input into the dynamic routing table. It gives instructions for receiving and sending data packets. This routing table is used in routers in large networks. The dynamic routing table’s router can communicate with different types of routers. This communication is also possible due to the use of routing protocols.

Which router do you want?

5 important functions of a router

Routers have the ability to perform a variety of functions. So let’s know the 5 most important functions of a router.


The router connects to multiple networks. If a node from network A has to send data to a node in network B, it is to be sent by just entering the IP address. That IP address contains the source and destination address. After that, it goes to the router. The router determines from its routing table which way to forward that packet. This is how the forwarding method works.


Whenever we access the internet from a network, it gets from the ISP or the default gateway. The default gateway has an IP address but no MAC address. If a node of a network sends a message to the router connected to that network, “What is the MAC address according to this IP address”. This message is called ARP request. It means “Address Resolution Protocol”. This ARP request works within a network

When that request reaches the router, then that router will stop that request at the same time and will not forward it. Because MAC address and also ARP request works within a network. In this way, router filters the data packets using the routing table.


The main purpose of routing is to forward the data to the right place and also to find the shortest path to the destination. All this work can be done with the help of the routing table. It requires different types of protocol for this.

Examples of routing protocol: intradomain routing protocol, inter-domain routing protocol, RIP (Routing Information Protocol), OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). These are the routing protocol used in the routing table.


When data travel from a network to a router, the router forwards it to the destination. But when the router doesn’t know where to send that data, it does Flooding. This means that it sends that data in all directions or broadcasts it.


There is no collision in the router. Because the store and forward method is used in the router. This means that when data comes to the router it first stores that data, then processes the data using routing tables and sends it to the destination. If any other data comes in between, then the router stores it in its memory first and runs through such processes. So, there is no collision in the router.

5 Different types of Router

Routers are divided into different types according to functionality and usage. So let us know how many types of routers are used in computer networks.

Broadband Router

This broadband router is used to access the Internet through a telephone connection. However, Voice over Internet Protocol technology is used in this. Which is available to access high-speed internet. This router and connection are available only from ISP (Internet Service Provider).

Wireless Router

Everyone uses a wireless router nowadays. This router is used more in the office and at home. Do you know, that you too are connected to the wireless router at the time of reading this article? This router provides the facility to access the Internet to all the WIFI devices in its limited range. Its range is up to 300 meters.

Ethernet connection can be given from these routers for Indore connection. Keeping security in mind, the router is password protected. The internet connection that comes in this router comes through a wire. This is known as OFC (optical fiber) cable. It comes from internet service providers only.

Core Router

Core routers are used within a network. It distributes the incoming data packets from other routers in the same network. This router works in the local area network; hence it is also called backbone of the network.

Edge Router

Edge routers typically connect internal networks to external networks. It is basically kept with the ISP. In this, the Border Gateway Protocol is used so that the data transmission takes place in a secure way. Edge router is two types

  • Subscriber edge router: This router performs the final role of the organization.
  • Inter provider border router: This type of router is used to connect different ISPs together. Like BSNL, Airtel, Jio, etc connect ISP to each other.


The Brouter works as both a bridge and a router. It transmits data from a network to network like a bridge and finds the shortest path for the data to reach the destination like a router.

4 Types of Routing Protocols

There are different types of routing protocols used in routers and it simplifies the process of transmitting data. So, let’s see how many types of routers are used in networking.

Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

These types of protocols are the first to be created. It is used extensively in Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). They can also be used at any software level of the OSI model. Till now there are 2 versions of this protocol, one is RIPv1 and the other is RIPv2. Thus, the maximum hop count of this protocol is 15. Due to which it cannot be used to provide large amount of internet.

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

It was manufactured by Cisco. It is also called distance vector routing protocol. IGRP was designed to build on the foundation laid on RIP for larger networks to function more efficiently. Simultaneously, the 15 hop caps present in the RIP were removed from their place. It can be used in large quantities. It broadcasts updates every 90 seconds and has a maximum of 255 connections.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

It is a link-state IGP that is generated for an IP address using the OSPF algorithm. OSPF routing protocol is used for efficient data transmission of packets. It serves to secure a database containing information about the topology of the network. It also uses Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm to reconstruct changes in its topology.

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

It is used to exchange any data between the gateway host. Simply put, it offers a platform for the router to share information in a domain. This type of protocol can also be used with multipath networking. It uses the routing path to access near data and network.

There are so many advantages and disadvantages in router which is used in networking. So, let’s know about that.

Advantages and Disadvantages of router

Advantages of Router

  • A router sends the data packet from the shortest path to the destination.
  • It is helpful in data transmission by connecting with routers of other networks.
  • Normally, there are no collisions in the router, from which the data packet remains safe.
  • With the help of routing table, the router is able to trace the actual route of the data and deliver it to the destination.

Disadvantages of Router

  • The router is more expensive than the other networking device.
  • It operates slowly in the network as compared to the bridge and the repeater.


1. Which two functions are primary functions of a router?

Although the router has many functions, but two of the most important functions are its ability to connect multiple devices together in a network. Second, it safely routes data packets to their specific destination IP addresses without collisions.

2. What is the importance of router?

Basically, a router is a networking device that connects one network to another. It mainly transmits data packets from IP address of one network to IP address of another network. When the router receives the data from the source node, it stores the data in its storage and analyzes it and sends that data packet to the destination by finding the shortest path.


Finally, a router is used for the distribution of data at an exact location in the computer network and the important point is that it sends data from the shortest path. Today’s theme is the important functions of a router, the Advantages and Disadvantages of router & describe of the routing protocol & table. I have given complete information in it. I hope you have understood.

If you do not understand it, or you need to improve somewhere, then you can tell us in the comment. We will solve your problem. If you get this article, then you should share it on social media. Thanks for reading the article.

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