Understanding 6 Major Role of Transmission Media in Computer Networks

Do you want to know what is transmission media in computer network? What role does transmission media play in sending data from one place to another? What are the types of transmission media in computer network and its advantages? If you are really surrounded by all these questions and are looking for the correct answers, then there is no need to worry. Through this article we are going to give you answers to all these questions. You just have to read this article completely.

Generally, a computer network is a group of interconnected devices that use transmission media to exchange data and share resources. Computer networks can be as small as connecting two computers via a cable or as large as the Internet. It is a global network connecting billions of devices through transmission media.

Let us know what is the role of transmission media in computer network.

Role Of Transmission Media in Computer Network

Users on computer networks share resources such as printers, files, and applications with each other. It allows you to send and receive messages, conduct video conferences, and share information in real time. Additionally, computer networks enable data storage and backup, making it easier to manage and access. All these tasks can be accomplished only by using transmission media.

Transmission media, also known as communication channel. It plays an important role in connecting all the networking devices. The type of transmission media you choose affects the efficiency, speed and reliability of data transmission. Some key role mention below.

Also Read: Importance of Framing in Computer Network

Data Transmission

Transmission media keeps all the networking devices within a network connected and allows data transmission to occur smoothly. It involves the transmission of text, images, video and other types of digital information. The speed and reliability of data transmission depend on the type of transmission media used.

Bandwidth and Data Rate

Every transmission media has different bandwidth capabilities, which directly affect the data rate or speed of data transmission. If it has high bandwidth, it may be able to transmit more data at a time. But if the bandwidth is less then it will be able to transmit less data at a time. This shows the performance of the network.

Signal Attenuation and Distortion

Transmission media can affect signal quality during transmission. Signal attenuation (weakening) and distortion may occur, especially in long-distance transmissions or due to environmental factors. Properly selected media can minimize these issues.

Wired vs. Wireless

Transmission media can be either wired or wireless. Wired media, such as copper cables and fiber optics, provide a stable and reliable connection. While wireless media, such as radio waves and microwaves, provide flexibility and mobility. Be it wired or wireless, data transmission is equivalent in both transmission media.

Also Read: Bandwidth in Networking to Ensuring Efficient Data Transmission


The scalability of a network is affected by the type of transmission media used. Some media types support easy scalability, allowing more devices to be added or the network expanded without significant degradation in performance.


The security of data transmission is affected by the characteristics of the transmission media. The transmit medium allows data transmission to flow from one location to another in a very secure manner. In both wired and wireless mediums, care is taken that data loss or data corruption does not occur during transmission.

2 Types of Transmission Media

Generally, there are two types of transmission media.

  • Guided Transmission Media
  • Unguided Transmission Media

Guided Transmission Media

Guided transmission media, also known as wired transmission media, are physical pathways that facilitate the flow of data signals between devices in a computer network. These wire media guide signals along a specific path, offering a controlled environment for data transmission. Common examples of guided transmission media include twisted-pair cables, coaxial cables, and fiber-optic cables. Twisted-pair cables, featuring pairs of insulated copper wires twisted together, are commonly used for telephone lines and local area networks (LAN).

A coaxial cable has a central conductor surrounded by insulation and a metal shield. They are used for cable TV and high-speed Internet connections. Fiber-optic cables transmit data as light pulses through glass threads. These cables offer high bandwidth and are useful for transmitting data over long distances.

Also Read: Benefits of Internet & Importance of internet in Daily life

Unguided Transmission Media

Wireless transmission media are also known as unguided media. It can transmit data through the air without the use of physical cables or pathways. Wireless transmission works by transmitting electromagnetic signals, which allows for greater mobility and flexibility in network setup.

Common examples of these transmission media include radio waves, microwaves infrared signals, etc. Radio waves used in technologies such as Wi-Fi provide convenient wireless connectivity within a local network.

Applications of Transmission Media in Computer Networks

Different types of transmission media are used depending on the specific needs of the computer network. So let us know where this transmission media is used.

Local Area Network

  • Twisted pair cable is a type of transmission media commonly used in local area networks. It’s used for Ethernet connections in homes, offices, and institutions. However, it offers dependable and cost-effective connectivity over short distances.
  • Similarly, coaxial cable is also a type of transmission media. It is used in cable television networks and indoor Internet connections.
  • Fiber optic cable that is deployed in high-speed LANs. Due to higher bandwidth, it plays a very important role in transmitting data faster.

Also Read: Functions of OSI Layer in Computer Network

Wide Area Networks (WANs)

  • In wide-area networks, microwaves are employed in point-to-point communications for long-distance connectivity. Such as in wireless backhaul links for cellular networks.
  • Satellite communications Microwaves facilitate communication with satellites for global connectivity. This enables services like satellite television and GPS.

Mobile Communication

  • Radio waves are used in cellular networks for wireless transmit between mobile devices and cell towers.
  • Microwaves play a role in backhaul connections for cellular networks. Apart from this, it ensures the transfer of data between cell towers and the core network.

Internet of Things (IoT)

  • Smart home, industrial IoT, and wearable devices frequently rely on radio waves or wireless transmission media such as Bluetooth to connect.


Broadcasting is used to transmit radio and television signals, providing wide coverage. In broadcasting, you can distribute your data, such as audio or video, to an audience on a large scale through any medium of electronic mass communication.

Applications of transmission media show how optimized computer networks are, from short-distance connections to large-scale Internet infrastructure.

Also Read: Importance of Network Protocol


What is transmission media in computer networks?

Transmission media, through which data is transmitted from one place to another. All the computers connected in a computer network are able to exchange data with each other only through these transmission media. There are two types of media, one is wired media and the other is wireless media.

What is the role of bandwidth in transmission media?

Bandwidth determines how much data can be transmitted in a given time. Higher bandwidth allows the transmission of larger amounts of data, resulting in faster network performance.

What are the advantages of using fiber-optic cables?

There are several advantages to using fiber-optic cable, including higher bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, less signal attenuation over long distances, and increased security due to the difficulty of tapping into optical signals.


Transmission media plays a huge responsibility in computer networks. Without transmission media, you cannot transfer any file or data from one computer to another on the Internet. The transmitting speed, data rate, etc. of each transmission media used in computer networks is different. Some are able to transmit data over long distances while some are used in small areas.

We hope that after reading this article Role of Transmission Media in Computer Networks, you will gain complete information about how data is transmitted in computer networks, the types of transmission media and the applications. If you still have any doubt on anything then you can ask us. We will try our best to solve your doubts.

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