Top 4 Important Functions of CPU & Features of Processor

You all must know that CPU is one of the important components of the computer. Along with this, you must have kept basic knowledge about CPU. If not, then you can read our written post on what is CPU and how many types of CPU are there. But today we will learn about what are the functions of CPU.

If you want to get complete information about all these things, then definitely read this. We always try to give accurate information to our readers. So, without delay let’s get started.

What is CPU?

CPU (Central Processing Unit) is called the brain of the computer. It is responsible for keeping computer programs running smoothly and maintaining the hardware of the system.

The CPU performs a variety of tasks given to the computer, such as managing data, processing and executing instructions given by the user, instructing data to be stored in memory, and controlling input/output operations.

What are the functions of CPU in Computer?

There are mainly 4 types of functions of CPU performed on a computer system.

Functions of CPU

Processing Data

One of the primary functions of CPU is to process data. When the user gives an instruction to run a program in the computer, the CPU first fetches that instruction. After fetching the instruction, the CPU runs the program and finally executes it.

The CPU calculates and processes the input instruction given and finally executes it and gives the correct result to the user. CPU does all these tasks through Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). It performs mathematical/logical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.

The processing power of a CPU is measured in clock cycles. It is also called clock speed. This shows how fast the CPU can process and execute a task. The higher the clock speed of the CPU, the faster it can complete the task.

All of you must have seen all the details in the properties of the computer. But you must have seen that the CPU is written at 1.50GHz or 2.30GHz. This is because clock speed is measured in gigahertz (GHz) units.

Control Input/output operation

The CPU is responsible for the input and output operations that take place in the computer. The CPU communicates with all the input and output devices connected to the computer, such as keyboard, mouse, printer, scanner, speakers, etc.

All devices that are connected to the computer have a driver so that the CPU is able to communicate with that input or output device. These device drivers are a type of software.

To find device driver details, you have to right-click on “This PC” and click on “Manage” option. After that, by clicking on the “Device Manager” option, you will get the details of the drivers of all the input/output devices installed on your computer.

The CPU controls all the devices separately, so the device driver is also different for all the devices.

Memory management

All the data or instructions from the start of the computer till shutdown are stored in the memory of the computer. Whatever instruction the user gives to the computer, is first stored in the primary or secondary memory of the computer, only after that the instruction is performed.

The CPU also plays a major role in this operation. CPU performs read or write operations on the program or instruction stored in the memory. Apart from this, the CPU also keeps track of which parts of the memory are being used at the time of running a program.

Remember one thing, when you instruct the computer to do some task and then the CPU performs it. The program that runs at that time is stored in the RAM. RAM comes under primary memory.

The CPU uses the memory management unit to manage the data stored in the computer’s memory. Due to this, the data of one program does not overlap with the data of another program. All the data is stored in a separate part of the memory.

The CPU also manages the cache, which is a small memory located on the CPU itself. The job of this cache memory is to store frequently used data in its storage. Its storage capacity is much less than the rest of the memory, but this cache memory is faster than the rest of the memory. That’s why the CPU is able to perform a task more quickly.

Executing instructions

The CPU is responsible for executing the instructions given to the computer. All instructions given to the computer are written in a low-level programming language that the CPU can understand. CPU understands that programming language and decides which task to perform.

The CPU first fetches instructions from memory, then decodes them and finally executes them in the proper sequence.

Features of Processor

There are many features of Processor in a computer system. 3 important features of CPU are given below.

Clock Speed

CPU’s performance or ability to work is detected by the clock cycle. It is also called clock speed. The better the clock speed, the faster the CPU is able to process data.

However, simply improving the clock speed of the CPU does not increase the performance of the computer. For this, it is necessary for all other clock speeds to remain correct. As the core and cache size of the CPU should also be better.

Number of Cores

Core means the capacity or performance of the CPU. The more cores a CPU has, the more work it can do. For example, an Octa-core CPU has 8 cores. This means it can do the work of 8 CPUs on a single CPU. This feature is especially important for multitasking and running CPU-intensive applications such as video editing software or gaming.

Cache memory

Cache memory also plays an important role in CPU. It stores those programs in its storage which have been repeatedly processed in the CPU. Which does not allow the CPU to access the rest of the memory. Due to this CPU is able to give better performance


What are the 4 functions of a CPU?

·        Processing Data
·        Control input/output operation
·        Memory management
·        Executing instructions

Why CPU is important?

CPU is considered one of the important components of the computer. This is because all the work done on the computer cannot be done by the CPU. CPU sends instructions to that particular device to perform any task. Only then does that work happen.

What are the types of CPU?

Till date, 6 types of CPU have been developed
·        Single core
·        Dual-core
·        Quad-core
·        Hexa core
·        Octa-core
·        Deca core

Also Read


In this article, we have told about the important features of processors and the functions of CPUs. I hope you all must have understand. If you have any doubt in your mind then you can tell us. We will try our best to clear your doubts.

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