Top 11 Types of Computer Viruses with Examples

In today’s article, we will know “What are computer viruses and most important 11 types of computer viruses with an explanation”. Apart from this, they will also know what kind of damage the virus causes to the computer. We will also discuss how to protect your computer from all these viruses.

In today’s time, the virus has become a big problem for everyone who uses computers, laptops, mobile, tablets, etc. Due to this, all the files, data, etc. in your computer get corrupted or hidden.

Apart from this, many problems start happening with the computer. Your system starts running slow, your storage shows full but there is no file inside it. All these problems happen because of viruses. Before knowing what is virus, let us know what is malware.

What is Malware?

You all must have heard the name of malware. Malware is software. By which we also call Malicious software. This is a type of malicious software. Its only purpose is to harm the computer or laptop etc. It is made for this purpose that it can harm the files of the computer.

It has many other purposes such as stealing computer data, encryption and deletion of sensitive data, hijacking computing functions, and monitoring user activity without their permission. This type of software is not created automatically. It is made by a software developer or hacker only. So that they can tamper with our computers and misuse the data of our computers.

This malicious software can enter your computer in many ways. Like if you had to download some data from the internet but by mistake, some other file gets downloaded. Every day a lot of spam mail comes in the mail. Malware enters your system by clicking and opening those emails. Apart from this, if you visit the wrong website and many popups open and click on it, there is a chance of malware being introduced in your system.

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This malware software is of many types. Which damages the computer in different ways.

  • Virus
  • Trojan
  • Worms
  • Spyware
  • Ransomware
  • Adware

Today we are going to talk about viruses, so let’s know what is virus.

What is Virus?

A virus is also a type of computer program. These types of computer programs are made to harm the computer. They corrupt the files in the system which is very important for us. Such as documents, videos, images etc.

The computer virus enters the system without the knowledge of the user and gradually destroys whatever data is there.

This computer program is named a virus because it spreads from one system to another. Nowadays every computer, and mobile is connected to the internet. If a computer has a virus, it spreads to other computers through the Internet.

Apart from this, all of you must be using a pen drive. You plug that pen drive into different computers. If there is a virus in a computer and you put your pen drive in that computer, then the virus enters the pen drive and it spread to all other systems.

As all good software is created by software developers, similarly hackers or some software developers also develop these virus programs. This is because if there is no virus in your computer then there will be no need for an antivirus to protect it. Antivirus is used in your system so a virus is created.

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History of Virus

The first computer virus was discovered in the ARPANET in the 1970s, named Creeper and created by Robert Thomas. This virus was spread on the network. Robert Thomas was working at BBN Technologies at that time and used to be an engineer.

The virus was an experimental program created by Thomas himself to infect ARPANET mainframes. This virus is used to display a message on the computer screen after damaging the system. “I’m The Creeper: Catch Me If You Can.

Malicious computer programs were first given the name “Virus” in 1983 by Fred Cohen, an American scientist. The full form of the Virus is






The name of the first virus to spread on the computer was ELK Cloner. Which spread to computers in 1982. This virus was created by a 15-year-old boy, Rich Skrenta. This ELK Cloner virus had earlier infected the operating system of Apple II. Which is also called DOS 3.3.

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11 types of Computer Viruses

There are many types of viruses in computers. Let’s know about the most common 11 types of computer viruses.

Boot Sector Virus

This virus corrupts the storage device. The boot sector means the computer is booted only through the operating system, which is corrupted by this virus. Because of this, the computer cannot boot. It corrupts the files of the operating system. Usually, this virus enters the computer through a USB connection.

File Virus

Basically, this virus appears on every computer. This file virus infects manly .exe, .bat, etc executable files. This virus becomes active only when all these files are executed. Due to this, the original file gets deleted from our computer.

Overwrite Virus

An overwriting virus overwrites a file on your computer and inserts malicious code into that file. Due to this, that file gets infected. From this, it is not possible to know which file is correct. Also, the size of the file does not change in this. This virus can infect files partially or completely. If you want to remove this virus from your computer, then you have to delete all those infected files or format the entire system and reinstall the operating system.

Polymorphic Virus

This type of virus keeps on changing its code or pattern. When the infected file is executed, it changes its code. For this reason, it is a difficult task to identify.

Stealth Virus

It is known by the name of stealth virus it comes into your system in such a way that you will not know and you will not even be able to detect it. That’s why it is named stealth. Antivirus cannot detect this type of virus. The best example of this is the Whale Virus.

Macro Virus

This type of virus infects macro documents or data files in your computer. It embeds itself as a macro in a document and inserts its code into the document’s macros. When the user opens that infected document, the Macho virus spreads from there. Generally, these viruses are transmitted through email attachments.

Multipartite Virus

Multipartite means that this virus infects computer files in many ways. This affects both the boot sector and the executable files. This virus first affects the program file of your computer and then when you execute that program file then it affects the boot sector. After this when you boot the computer, it affects the data of the entire computer.

Cavity Virus

When we store our data inside a file on our computer and leave some space. This cavity virus captures that empty space. That’s why it is also called the space filler virus. It is very difficult to detect this virus.

Email Virus

An email virus is caused by an attachment in the email. When you open that attachment, then this virus spreads in your computer and infects the files of the computer.

Append Virus

This virus inserts its malicious code at the end of the files and infects them. After that, it converts the header of the file into its code. Every time you execute that file, it only executes its code and does not allow the actual file to execute. This virus never removes or destroys any file with which it is attached.

Resident Virus

These viruses are stored in the memory of our computer. When we start the computer, then these viruses become active and start destroying the files in the computer.

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Some Virus Attack Examples

  • ILOVEYOU: This virus attack came in the year 2000, in which there was a loss of 15 billion dollars. This virus attack was visible on the computer on the basis of a love letter and people saw it in the form of a letter. But it was a virus like a text file.
  • Code Red: This attack happened in 2001. In which there was a loss of 2 billion dollars. Webpages were usually hacked in this virus attack. After being hacked, “Hacked by Chinese” was written on that webpage.
  • Sobig: This virus attack happened in 2003, in which there was a loss of 30 billion dollars. This virus used to come attached in the email on the basis of software.
  • Mydoom: The biggest damage was caused by this virus attack. It cost 38 billion dollars which happened in 2004. This virus attack happened through email.
  • WannaCry: This attack took place in 2017 and caused a loss of $4 billion. In this, the hacker used to capture the data in your computer and cloud and demanded money.

Also Read: Does System Restore Recover Deleted Files in Windows 10/11


What are the top 10 computer viruses at all time?

The top 10 computer viruses are
Mydoom (2004)
Code Red (2001)
Conficker (2008)
Blaster (2003)
Melissa (1999)
Sasser (2004)
Storm Worm (2007)
Nimda (2001)
Zeus (2007)

How do computers get infected with viruses?

There are many reasons for a computer to get infected with a virus. In most cases this happens due to the carelessness of the computer user. Some of the important reasons for computer virus infection are browsing malicious sites on the internet and downloading files, opening malicious email attachments, using infected external storage devices, etc.

How can I protect my computer from viruses?

Regularly update your operating system and software, use reputable antivirus or anti-malware software, be cautious when clicking on links or downloading files, avoid opening email attachments from unknown sources and do not insert any infected external drive in your computer.

Can viruses be transferred through USB drives?

Yes, USB drives can contain viruses and are easily transferred from one system to another. Avoid using unknown or untrusted USB drives, and use antivirus software to scan external devices before opening files.


In today’s article, we have explained in detail about what is computer virus and the 11 types of computer viruses. I hope you must have liked this article 11 types of computer virus. It has always been my endeavour to give correct and complete information to all of you so that after reading this article your doubts will be cleared. After that do not have to go to any other site.

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