4 Basic Operations of Computer System & its Functions

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In today’s article, we will learn about the 4 basic operations of computer system. How does the computer operate? By following the user’s instructions and how it processes the data, we will go into detail about all these things. If you want to know about all these things then read this article till the end.

Basic Operations of Computer System

A computer usually works according to the instructions of the user. Well, the basic operations of computer is to input the data and give the output. Apart from this, it also works to collect data inside itself. Due to this, the user can keep his data on the computer for a long time.

The working efficiency of a computer is determined by the components inside it. The more powerful components are installed in the computer, the faster that computer operates. This means that it is able to complete any work very quickly.

The computer inputs the raw data given by the user. After processing it, its result is shown to the user on the basis of output. This process is called the basic operations of computer system. Generally, the computer performs 4 operations. Let’s know about all those operations.

  • Input operation
  • Processing operation
  • Storing operation
  • Output operation

Input operation

Input operation is the first operation of the computer. In this, the computer takes instructions from the user to perform a task. This means that if the user wants to run an application, then with the help of the input device, he gives instructions to the computer. Only then the computer is able to perform that task.

Input Operation

If you have a computer or laptop, then you must be giving any kind of instruction to the computer through the input device only. All the data that you enter through the input device is in binary format. Which the computer understands in 0s and 1s. What is that input device?

List of input devices:

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Scanner
  • Joystick
  • Trackball
  • Microphone
  • Barcode reader
  • Magnetic ink card reader (MICR)
  • Optical character reader (OCR)

Processing operation

The processing operation of the computer is the second basic operations of computer system. The computer first processes the data that the user gives to the computer through the instruction input device. Logical and arithmetic operations are performed in this processing. so that the computer can produce accurate results.

This processing operation is done by the internal parts of the computer. All the internal parts of the computer require power to run, which is provided by the Simple Mode Power Supply (SMPS). The processor plays the main role in this process. Apart from this, RAM helps the processor in processing data. In this, the processor reads and writes the inputted instructions.

The power supplied by SMPS reaches all the components and one important thing is that all the components consume different power. That’s why SMPS supplies different power to all. The data that is transmitted in the computer is at a specific frequency or speed. That speed is called clock speed. In a computer whose clock speed is high, the data is transmitted at the same speed.

Output Operation

This is the third basic operations of computer system. In this, the result of the data done in the processing operation is published. That’s why it is called an output operation. For this, an output device is required. In which the result of the data executed in the computer can be shown.

The output is given to us on the basis of how the data has been inputted and processed. The way we give input to the computer, the computer gives us the output in that way. If we give the wrong instruction input then the computer shows it error.

List of Output Devices

  • Printer
  • Speaker
  • Monitor
  • Projector
  • Headphone
  • Plotter

Storage Operation

This operation is the fourth basic operations of computer system. In this, the output from the computer is stored in the computer’s memory. If we talk about storage, then there are 2 types of storage available in it. One is primary storage and the other is secondary storage.

When the processing is going on in the computer, then only the processed data is stored using the primary memory. RAM and ROM storage is used in this. Although there is not much storage in this storage.

After the complete processing is over, the result that comes out has to be saved permanently in the computer by the user. That’s why secondary storage is used. Your hard disk, SSD, and CD/DVD drives are used in this.

List of some Storage devices

  • SSD
  • Hard disk
  • CD/DVD drive
  • Pen drive
  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
  • ROM (Read Only Memory)
  • Floppy Disk


How many basic operations are there in computers?

There are 4 basic operations of computer system
Input operation
Processing operation
Storing operation
Output operation

How many types of memory are there in the computer?

There are 2 types of memory in the computer system
Primary memory
Secondary memory

What type of memory is RAM?

The full form of RAM is Random Access Memory. Basically, Ram is volatile memory and it goes under primary memory.

Give some examples of secondary memory

Hard disk
Solid state drive
CD/DVD drive
Floppy drive

Also Read


Basic operations of computer systems are generally 4 types. All this input operation, processing operation, output operation and storage operation. Without all these operations or functions, the computer will not be able to run. All these help run the computer.

In today’s article, we have provided you with complete information about the 4 basic operations of computer systems. I hope you all must have understand this. If you have any doubt regarding this article, then you can tell us in the comment box. We will try to clear your doubts.

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