Important facts of Batch Processing Operating System

In the early days, computers were huge machines. Tape, card reader, punch card, line printer etc. were the input and output devices which were used to operate that computer. It used to take a lot of time to process the data on these computers.

Therefore, batch-processing operating systems were designed to process data in batches. In this blog post, we’ll take a closer look at batch processing operating systems, their architecture, features, limitations, and advantages and disadvantages.

If you have come here searching to know about all these things then you have come to the right place. Here you will get complete information about the batch operating system. So let’s start without delay.

What is Batch processing Operating System?

A batch processing operating system is an operating system that processes data in batches or groups, without any user interaction during the process. The user submits his group of tasks to the system, which processes the tasks in the order they are received.

Batch processing systems are mainly used to process large amounts of data. Like you do payroll processing or generate reports.

Whatever work was processed and executed in the computer was through batch processing. In this operating system, the user did not have to interact directly with the computer.

Rather, users would store their work in a batch and the batch file in an offline device such as a punch card. In the end, that work was executed by putting it in the computer. Jobs with similar requirements are usually placed in a batch and executed as a group. This resulted in higher processing speed.

In this operating system, it is easy to execute these groups of tasks simultaneously since similar tasks are batched. It consists of similar jobs that are included in a batch. Processing takes place in the order in which the data is stored. That is, it happens in a sequential manner.

Batch Operating System Architecture

The architecture of batch operating systems is generally divided into two main components.

  • Job Control Language (JCL)
  • batch monitor

Job Control Language (JCL)

Job control language is a scripting language, which is used to determine how to run batch jobs on large servers such as mainframe computers. JCL acts as an interface between the computer’s application program and the operating system. It also specifies the requirements of the job, including resources to input, output and system files. It is mainly used to control the process of a task.

Batch Monitor

The batch monitor is responsible for controlling the execution of jobs entered into the system computer. It is also responsible for allocating resources to jobs, including CPU time, memory, and I/O devices. The monitor also manages job queues, scheduling jobs for execution based on priority and resource availability.

Features of Batch Operating System

Batch Operating Systems provide several features that make them suitable for processing large amounts of data in batches.

  • Batch systems use job scheduling to allocate system resources to jobs based on priority and availability. The scheduling algorithm determines the order in which tasks are processed and resources are allocated to each task.
  • In this, the order in which the user gives the task to be processed, in the same way the CPU processes all the tasks. This means that the task which reaches the CPU first is executed first. Means ‘first come, first serve’
  • In this, the user has to make a batch of all the jobs and submit them to the computer for processing. After submission, the user does not need to interact with it. Finally, after the job is executed, the user gets the final result.
  • It also understands the priority of a task. Therefore, it executes the jobs with higher priority first.
  • Batch processing operating systems have the ability to do error handling. Errors have been detected while this job is being processed. This allows an error in a particular job to not affect other correct jobs.

Limitations of Batch Operating Systems

Batch processing operating systems have several limitations that affect their performance and usefulness.

Lack of Interaction

Batch processing operating systems do not allow user interaction during job processing. User has to wait till the job is done. This feature may be limited for some applications that require user interaction during job processing.

Limited Resource Sharing

Batch systems allocate system resources to jobs based on priority and availability. The system cannot share resources dynamically between jobs, which can affect the system’s performance.

Limited Multitasking

It can process only one task at a time in batch processing operating system. The system has to complete the first task before starting the second task. This feature may be limited for applications that require multitasking and parallel processing.

Batch operating system Advantages and Disadvantages

Batch processing operating systems have existed since the early days of computer systems. It has been used in a wide range from simple processing to scientific research. Like other operating systems, it also has many advantages and disadvantages. So let’s know about the batch operating system advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages of Batch operating system

  • Batch processing operating system executes multiple tasks at a time without taking continuous input from the user. In this, the user does not need to start any job manually.
  • In batch operating system, multiple tasks are executed at a time. Therefore, the available resources can be better utilized in it. This means that any work can be completed quickly in time.
  • These operating systems automatically execute all the tasks that are submitted to the computer in batch form. Also, it gives the user the facility to focus on other complex tasks.
  • Batch processing operating systems are designed to work reliably if a computer has a hardware or software problem. It fixes errors quickly and without user intervention.
  • This operating system can be much less expensive than other operating systems. Because it does not require any user interaction or support. It is better for all those businesses and organizations where large amount of data is processed simultaneously and less resources are required.

Disadvantages of Batch operating system

  • Batch operating systems allow limited interaction between the user and the system. After the user submits one batch task to the computer, he has to wait for the second batch to be submitted. Which is a very long process.
  • In this, each task is processed one by one. Thereby the computer becomes idle while waiting for the completion of the current task. As a result, the process is very slow and inefficient use of resources.
  • In this operating system, only one job can be done at a time, so it does not support multitasking.
  • Batch operating systems have limited capabilities. It is capable of processing a batch containing a specific job. Therefore, it cannot handle complex and multitasking jobs.


Batch-processing operating systems were an important component in the early days of computers. These systems were designed to process large amounts of data in batches. Batch data could be executed without any user interaction during processing.

Today’s modern operating systems have replaced batch operating systems by providing advanced features including multitasking, and resource sharing.

I hope that by reading this article, you have got good information about batch processing operating systems. If you have any doubts regarding batch operating system, then you can tell us. We will surely try to solve your doubts.

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